By Stuart Sumida, Karen L.M Martin
Amniote Origins integrates sleek systematic tools with stories of useful and physiological procedures, and illustrates how experiences of paleobiology will be illuminated via stories of neonatology. therefore, comparative anatomists and physiologists, sensible morphologists, zoologists, and paleontologists will all locate this certain quantity very worthwhile. encouraged via the possibility of integrating fields that experience lengthy been remoted from each other, Amniote Origins offers a radical and interdisciplinary synthesis of 1 of the vintage transitions of evolutionary background. Key positive aspects * Integrates smooth systematic tools with stories of sensible and physiological approaches * Illustrates how experiences of paleobiology may be illuminated via reviews of neonatology * offers an intensive and interdisciplinary synthesis of 1 of the vintage transitions of evolutionary historical past
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Extra resources for Amniote Origins: Completing the Transition to Land
According to Carroll, the size of an anamniotic egg is limited by the absence of extraembryonic membranes and by the absence of a mineralized shell because support and gas exchange would be problematic beyond a certain size (10 mm in diameter). Caecilians have large eggs, but this may be possible because of the elastic fibers in the egg capsule and the large filamentous gills of the embryos. Carroll suggests that external gills would not have been present in the embryos of the ancestors of amniotes because the gas exchange is performed by the allantois.
144 Internal trochanter: absent (0); present and separated from articular surface by periosteal bone (1); confluent with proximal articular surface (2). 145 Intertrochanteri c fossa: present, proximal head of femur concave ventrally (0); absent, proximal head convex ventrally (1). 146 Adductor crest: absent (0); present (1). 147 Tibia and fibula: discrete elements (0); fused into tibiofibula (1). 148 Astragalus: absent, discrete tibiale, intermedium, and proximal centrale are present (0); present (1).
This approach was applied here for selected clades. Several clades in the new phylogeny are only weakly supported and require only one extra step to collapse (nodes B, I, S, V, Y, and Diadectomorpha) . The small amount of support for some of these nodes probably results from the lack of available anatomical data. For instance, nectrideans are a fairly diverse group, but no genus is well known. Diploceraspis is represented by well-preserved cranial remains (Beerbower, 1963) but few postcranial remains.
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