By Richard J. Geider, Bruce A. Osborne (auth.)

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Sources of contamination not necessarily limited to 14C-productivity experiments include the sea surface microlayer in which trace elements, oils, and microorganisms can accumulate relative to the subsurface waters, the water sampling bottle, the hydrographic wire from which the water sampler is suspended, the ship itself (oxidized metal parts, paints, oils and grease, smoke, and surface-slick contaminants), any container which the sample comes in contact with, and any added reagents including the 14C-bicarbonate solution.

Copper sensitivity of phytoplankton growth. 54 Adapted from Brand et al. (1986). 44 Using Isotopes 41 conclude that additions of copper (in pg) were possible if "ultraclean" techniques were not used. The extent of inhibition of photosynthesis by metal additions will depend on the sensitivity of phytoplankton present in a water sample to these metals, the extent of contamination during sample processing and the free metal ion buffering capacity of the water sample. There have been few comparisons of 14C production using ultraclean and less rigorous techniques, and, as might be expected, the results have been variable, with some investigators indicating no inhibition and others a slight inhibition of phytoplankton photosynthesis.

1989). 24 Net Gas Exchange Changes in Biomass The autotrophic biomass or standing stock is the concentration of plant material per unit volume (g·m -3) or per unit area (g·m -2). Biomass is usually measured as wet weight, dry weight, ash-free dry weight, or organic carbon, although a number of other variables can also be employed. In studies of phytoplankton photosynthesis, chlorophyll concentration is the most readily and unambiguously measured biomass indicator. The increase in autotrophic biomass over a given time interval is the yield, which, like standing stock, has units of g·m- 2 or g·m- 3 • Under natural conditions the yield is determined by the difference between net algal photosynthesis and losses to grazers, export, and excretion, where all variables are reported in the same units.

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