By Georgina Calderon-Dominguez, Gustavo F. Gutierrez-Lopez, Keshavan Niranjan

Advances in warmth move Unit Operations: Baking and Freezing in Bread Making explains the most recent knowing of warmth move phenomena fascinated by the baking and freezing of bread and describes the newest complex ideas used to supply greater caliber bread with an extended shelf existence. warmth move phenomena ensue in the course of key bread-making levels (cold garage, resting, and fermentation) during which temperature and volume of warmth move needs to be conscientiously managed. This ebook combines the engineering and technological elements of warmth move operations and discusses how those operations have interaction with the bread making procedure; the ebook additionally discusses how baking and freezing impact the product caliber.

Divided into fourteen chapters, the booklet covers the fundamentals of warmth and mass move, fluid dynamics, and floor phenomena in bread-making business operations, mathematical modelling in porous platforms, the estimation of thermo-physical homes concerning bread making, layout of apparatus, and business applications.

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Advances in heat transfer unit operations: baking and freezing in bread making

Advances in warmth move Unit Operations: Baking and Freezing in Bread Making explains the newest figuring out of warmth move phenomena all for the baking and freezing of bread and describes the newest complex strategies used to supply greater caliber bread with an extended shelf lifestyles. warmth move phenomena happen in the course of key bread-making phases (cold garage, resting, and fermentation) during which temperature and quantity of warmth move has to be conscientiously managed.

Extra info for Advances in heat transfer unit operations: baking and freezing in bread making

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3 dx qy+dy Analysis of heat conduction in Cartesian coordinates system.   ∂q   ∂q   ∂q   q x + q y + q z −  q x +  x  dx + q y +  y  dy + q z +  z  dz   ∂x   ∂z    ∂y    ∂T  . 48) The last equation is the general form of the heat diffusion equation. 51) where k is the thermal conductivity, ρ is the density, and cp is the specific heat. The denominator of the thermal diffusivity expression can be identified as the volumetric heat capacity. The dimensional analysis of the main quantities in this section is presented below.

53) The term E in is given as E in = q r + q θ + q z . 4 z qθ+dθ qr dz r T(x, y, z) T(r, θ, z) qz Analysis of heat conduction in cylindrical coordinates system. 56)  ∂T  . 59) q θ = −  ∂T  q z = − kr d θ dr  . 60) The term E out is given as ∂q ∂q ∂q E out = q r + dr + q θ+ dθ + q z + dz = q r + r dr + q θ + θ d θ + q z + z dz. 61) Rearranging the equation and doing the substitution of each term, it results in E in + E g = E out + E s , E in − E out + E g = E s   ∂q ∂q ∂q q r + q θ + q z −  q r + r dr + q θ + θ d θ + q z + z dz  ∂r ∂θ ∂z    ∂T  + q gr dr d θ dz = ρcpr dr d θ dz  .

101) The last equation is another expression of the momentum equation. 102) where μ is the dynamic viscosity and ρ is the density. Notice that the kinematic viscosity is also a measure of the resistance to flow of the fluid under the influence of gravity. 12), the energy flow equation can be derived. 12 ∂T dx ρcpvTdx ∂y Analysis of the energy flow in a control volume conduction and convection. The net energy flow in the x direction is   ∂T     ∂uT   ρcp uT dy − ρcp uT + ρcp  dx  dy +  − k   dy   ∂ x      ∂x      ∂T   ∂2T   − −k  − k  2  dx  dy.

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