By Kenneth M. Setton, Robert Lee Wolff, Harry W. Hazard
The six volumes of A heritage of the Crusades will stand because the definitive historical past of the Crusades, spanning 5 centuries, encompassing Jewish, Moslem, and Christian views, and containing a wealth of knowledge and research of the historical past, politics, economics, and tradition of the medieval world.
Read Online or Download A History of the Crusades, Volume II: The Later Crusades, 1189-1311 PDF
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Additional info for A History of the Crusades, Volume II: The Later Crusades, 1189-1311
1 The mainstream press reported that of the approximately 700 spectators, 377 burned to death (Abkashak 1985:14–15); others claimed 600 deaths (Nabavi 1999). , “burned throughout most of the night, and the victims’ cries could be heard by hundreds helplessly watching from outside the theater. . ”â†œ2 Grief, mourning, and anger gripped the entire city. Some families bore an undue share of the calamity, having lost multiple members, among them Jafar Sazesh, who lost five of his children, and Yusef Radmehr, who lost ten children (fig.
6 Disillusioned with the revolutionary outcome, he later turned against the regime and in a massive book-Â�length confession claimed that the cleric who presided as judge over the Rex Cinema criminal trial, HojjaÂ� toleslam Musavi Tabrizi, was himself one of the architects of the Rex Cinema fire and had personally directed the arsonists (Boroujerdi 2002:91–94). Abadan and the nation were both transfixed and transformed by the Rex Cinema tragedy. ”â†œ8 Other movie houses had been destroyed in Tehran and Tabriz, but without casualties; it was the massive scale of the Rex Cinema crime along with the tragedy and surrounding ambiguity that transformed the destruction of cint ra n si t i on to “islamic ate c inema” 3 2â•‡ The protagonist of Khosrow Sinai’s fiction movie, In the Alleys of Love, visits the actual ruins of the Rex Cinema during his nostalgic tour of the city.
As a result, these values evolved and even disappeared with changing circumstances. For example, populism as a vibrant part of the Islamicate ideology effectively ended with the termination of war with Iraq and the death of Ayatollah Khomeini, in 1989. Populism was first replaced by clientelism, according to which autonomous parallel groups formed powerful vertical, personal, patron-Â�client bonds with ruling Islamic structures, and then by increasing militarization of the government after the war, during the presidencies of Rafsanjani and Khatami, culminating with Ahmadinejad’s presidency, in 2005 (Alamdari 2005:1286).
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