By Rosalind Mitchison

A great quantity for someone in need of a brisk evaluate of North Britain from the 12 months dot to the 20th century.

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The kings, particularly David, brought in the new monastic orders with a care and deliberate selection that shows they understood the different facets of religious life the orders represented —Cistercians from Rievaulx with their stress on labour and plainness at Melrose; Cluniacs with their elaborate services in the Isle of May; Tironensians at Kelso; Premonstratensians at that loveliest of sites, Dryburgh, where the pinkish grey stones now lie in ruins under big trees beside the Tweed; Austin canons at Holyrood, Jedburgh, and Cambuskenneth.

By this time Bruce was in his last illness, and his only son David was a boy of four. Bruce’s own authority in Scotland had been so strong that immediately after Bannockburn he had declared the disinheritance of all those who did not admit it unconditionally. The treaty accepted this situation, and Scotland’s independence, but there was to be compensation of £20,000 to the English for the surrender of their claims. David was to marry the child sister of the English king, and did so at once.

Angevins. Alexander II (1214–49) and III (1249–80) were adequate for their function. If they did not play as big a part in reshaping the country’s institutions as their predecessors of the twelfth century, this was because that work had now been done. With peace on their southern frontier they could work at incorporating more fully the two areas of separatist traditions, the north and Galloway. William the Lion had intervened in the 11705 in a dispute between the sons of Fergus, Lord of Galloway, and had eventually secured the division of the lands, so that Galloway proper went to one claimant, and southern 1.

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